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the turbo fan and the turboprop are the
two main engines that power commercial aircraft and they have a lot in common
but I’m going to explain the differences coming up hey 74 Crew what’s going on
if you don’t know me my name is Kelsey I’m a 747 pilot my channel 74 gear is
all about aviation so whether you’re a pilot or an aviation enthusiast consider
subscribing if you haven’t watched the earlier video that I did explain you how
the core of a jet engine works I’m gonna put that link in the description below
watch that or this video won’t make too much sense
breaking down the comparison between a turboprop and a turbofan is simple now
that you understand how the core of a jet engine is working to recap what I
explained in that earlier video in this stage of the core engine yet air is
getting sucked and compressed in this stage the compressed air is being
introduced to fuel and a spark to create an explosion which goes at the back of
the jet engine the back of the jet engine turns these fans in the back
which also in turn turns the fans on the front of the engine which compressed
more air and continue the cycle and again this engine by itself would be
called a turbo jet engine which is not how your commercial aircraft work first
I’m going to explain how a turboprop works and later it will make sense why
this is a jet stream 32 this is the first model of turbine aircraft that I
flew I was super excited because I was finally flying a multi-engine turbine
aircraft I remember the first time I walked up to it I thought wow this is so
big that’s what she said and now I could probably fit 10 of those in a 747 the
engines of a turboprop worked based on the exact same core principles of what I
explained earlier on how a jet engine works here is the inlet of where the air
is going into the engine on a jet stream and this is the exhaust section where
the air is actually leaving the engine so the first two stages of this engine
work exactly like a turbojet engine which I explained earlier the
difference is when the air is actually going out the back of the engine
it doesn’t use air to propel itself forward what it does is it turns these
additional fans in the back these fans are on a separate shaft that
drive the propeller on the front of the plane that you’re seeing so instead of
air propelling you forward that air is driving these fans which is driving the
propeller which is pulling the aircraft forward if you remember the Sully video
that I did a few months ago where I talked about eating a bird just as we
were coming in to land that bird was able to make it through that propeller
and into that tiny little Inlet to this day I have no idea how that bird was
able to miss the propeller and get into that small little hole while it was
flying talk about a rotten day now a turbofan is generally what you’re seeing
on most commercial aircraft if you’ve flown on a Boeing or if you’ve flown on
an Airbus you’ve flown on a turbofan aircraft this is a diagram of the
turbofan that you see on most commercial aircraft side-by-side this section of
the diagram is actually this section of the engine that you see and this section
of the diagram is actually this section of the engine this large fan that you
see on the front of the engine is working exactly like a propeller on a
turboprop and this section of the engine is working exactly like a turbojet so
it’s getting the best of both worlds as the air is leaving the back of a turbine
engine it is driving the fans that compress more air it is also driving
this fan on the front just like a turboprop and it is propelling the plane
forward so as that explosion goes out the back is pushing the plane forward
and driving two different sets of fan blades to suck in more air and use that
front fan as a propeller that air from the propeller on the front is going
outside the core of the engine and it’s making a much more fuel-efficient engine
especially at lower altitudes this type of engine is called a turbofan engine or
a high-bypass turbofan engine the term high-bypass
is definitely a turn you’re going to want to know if you’re a pilot
especially if you’re going from a piston to a turbine engine because that is
something that they may ask you in the interview this is a picture of the 747 –
eight general electric engines it’s something that I pulled off of my
Instagram if you follow me on Instagram you know that I love these engines I
think they look so cool they’re also very very fuel-efficient the other nice
thing is that because they are so large it allows me to take a picture of it and
show you the different parts and how they work in real life in this photo
here you’re seeing looking back from the back of the engine forward that fan that
you see at the very far end of the picture is actually the fan that you see
when you’re looking at the front of the aircraft the air that’s going from that
fan is actually going on the outside of the core of the engine which is right
here and that air that’s going outside the core of that engine is actually
working exactly like a propeller which I talked about earlier and the air that’s
going out of the core from right here is using the thrust that’s being created
from the explosion to push the aircraft forward so you’re having two different
ways that the aircraft is actually being propelled forward I’m learning so much
this is exactly what I need I remember from back in my days when I was flying
turboprop aircraft that people were nervous people often associate
propellers with lack of reliability in the comments section below I want you to let me know now that you understand how similar a turboprop is to a turbofan are
you gonna feel more comfortable flying on a turboprop aircraft I look forward
to hearing from you until then keep the blue side up

100 thoughts on “Is a Turbofan Engine or Turboprop Engine Safer? | Pilot Explains

  1. Maybe I missed it but he didn't answer the question in the title. Which is safer? I'd hazard a guess that turbofans would be safer. Why? they're ducted so whilst the ingestion hazard remains you literally have to walk directly before or behind a turbofan to be affected. A turboprop having the prop exposed is more dangerous when approaching from the front back or sides. Also if there are failures the cowling of a turbofan should contain the damage. I have no knowledge of props failing and separating but if they did then such a failure would radiate away from the engine due to the centrifugal forces.

  2. The simple explanation of a turbine engine is similar to piston engines, Suck, squeeze bang and blow. In theory they are both turbo fans, except one have a shroud around the prop, which improve efficiency, and I suspect might do something to allow higher tip speed. I hate those Garrett engines on the Jetstreams, they are loud, even when idling on the ground, some Cessna Mu2 use them too, if one of those planes are running outside, I cannot hear much in the terminal building until it clear off. The military like the low by-pass fans for the cold air surrounding the hot core gas improve the infra red masking. I think the afterburner (or as the Limies call it… reheat) only work on the hot core gas. More next post.

  3. One thing you might notice, the most popular small turbine, the PT-6 is over a decade out of date. Biz jets with other engines, even P and W parent company had FADEC and one button start, auto throttle for well over a decade.They are just sitting on their back side. PT-6 nowadays you still have to watch N1 and the Temp on the steam gauges like a hawk on start up and be ready to cut off fuel if necessary. They are like sitting on a railway track, they have 3 choices, move aside, keep up to the speed of the traffic, or be run over. Over 5 years ago, GE quietly bought a CZ company that make a near clone of the PT6, that new engine will be out soon and GE will be eating P and W Canada's lunch. GE badly need some good news for their parent company.There is just no excuse for complacency, and at least several top cheese should be fired for this long ago. A computer company , you cannot even be 2 years behind. When the new GE engine get introduced into the new Cessna (a PC12 clone) and the bugs worked out, they will expand the HP range to compete with other PT6 variants

  4. I guess turboprop are safer cause you have less chances of hitting a bird … Well actually i don't know, it depends on the width of the fan in both cases

  5. As far as reliability, I vote for the high bypass turbofan engine. It has far fewer moving parts than the turboprop when all of the propeller gearing and variable blade pitch hardware is taken into account.

  6. I used to not like turboprops because of the paranoia of 'props failing and shards of it coming into the cabin' because unlike a turbofan, it doesn't have a nacelle to contain those shards. Time goes by and I learnt that planes go to through regular checkups to ensure that will never happen. Plus, turboprops sound really powerful on takeoff. Not much high pitched jet sound, more of high speed propeller action.

  7. I always thought that the propeller was driven by a regular piston engine rotating the propeller on a shaft haha I was so wrong about that

  8. I’d say turbo props are still slightly less reliable than turbo fan or turbojet engines only because of the added component of a gearbox needed for the turbo prop. It’s one extra point of failure.

  9. A turbo prop has gears that the turbine drives but the speed is reduce through reduction gears because at supersonic speed prop efficiency is decreased, also turbo props has variable pitch props to obtain best propulsion at various speeds and altitudes. A turbo fan has fixed blades to a disk inside a casing passing through vanes increasing velocity, hence forward momentum

  10. Not explosions but combustions. Explosions travel 10 times faster and damage engines, they call it combustion chambers for a reason.

  11. Hmm lots of variables there. Which is “safer?” That question can’t be answered without known parameters. At what load? What altitude? What weather conditions? Which airport? How long is the runway? Bird strikes? Single engine performance? Which aircraft type? Obviously can’t be answered.

  12. Why does everyone think that commercial jet engines produce the majority of their thrust through the fan acting as a propeller? I always thought the fan just sucks in air and it’s really the jet core and bypass exhaust exiting the nozzle at high speeds that produces the thrust.

  13. In a turbofan engine, what percentage of the overall thrust comes from the large fan in front acting as a propeller, and what percentage comes from the hot exhaust thrust from the turbojet core?

  14. I flew on a 70s BAC 1-11 And a 737-200. They had Low Bypass Turbofans, I think that was before they strapped the huge fan on front lol…

  15. First of all, there is no "explosion" in the combustors. Fuel is introduced, set on fire and it is a smooth expanding of gas that drives the hot section. I'll take the P&WC PT6A-66D in the TBM with its IPS any day over a fan. Not only does the PT6 in the TBM have the IPS, it also has a FOD screen in the inlet to the compressor to keep those birds out of the engine in the event one is not ejected out the IPS duct. Birds have destroyed more than one turbofan and brought down airliners because of it. That's not saying you can't pick up FOD like fine sand off the runway if you're not careful with beta range on the prop with a PT6 – you can. But the reverse flow engine is far less likely to experience catastrophic failure from FOD ingestion than fans are.
    The Garrett TPE331 is another matter since it's not a reverse flow free-turbine design. The Garrett sucks everything in the front and blows the smoke out the back just like a fan.

  16. I love watching your videos. I am a frequent flier and grew up as a little boy wanting to be a pilot but became a surgeon instead! Now my 11 year old daughter wants to be a pilot. I do have a question though.

    Why is it that it is more common for small planes such as Cessna to crash compared to larger commercial planes?

  17. Thank You for sharing and enjoyed the lesson. Old school still love a prop! One my favorite planes was old Sky King. Big jump in comfort from a Piper Cub with no doors…lol.

  18. all depends on the type of Turboprop. Remember there are a few that are banned from flying in northern USA/Canada because of Icing and safety issues.

  19. Turboprop Engine is better choice because the fan blades tilt can be adjusted to give better performance producing thrust quicker than a turbo fan.

  20. In general, I prefer to fly on a turbofan airplane due to higher cruising speed, less noise, less vibration. Also, adding props and mechanism to adjust the angle of the props adds more complexity and additional failure points.

  21. How is a prop less reliable than a jet engine? i don't understand that we've used propellers looong before the jet engine came around the wright brothers used 2 propellers on their plane bi plains used a single propeller large bombers like the b-15 and b-25 used 2-4 propellers…..

    on that note why do we put jet engines below the wings instead of inside the wings?

  22. I worked on RR Tyne turbo-props. If you took all four engines to mid range and let them stabilize then pull back to ground idle, the props made a noise that was addictive while they hunted for the right pitch.

  23. Ever seen that Navy ground crew guy that got SUCK into the intake of an
    A-6 INTRUDER, (AND LIVED)!!!
    His helmet saved him!!!!!😳

  24. That's a lot of information in minutes… i love how you explain them… i also thought years ago that turbofan was better than turboprop… i was wrong… been flying economy class with ATR-72 and airbus A320 aircraft… i wish i can be a passenger in a 747 one day.
    all the best for you sir Kelsey!!!

  25. Another advantage of the turbofan is the cooler air from the fan provides some sound suppression making a quieter engine.

  26. I've only flown on turbofan aircraft. One was a small regional (crj900 I think) the others were Airbuses a319,320 and B737-600. I love the sound of turboprops, though.

  27. Obviously not everyone is going to become a pilot or avionics tech, or A & P mechanic but a aviation tour of schools throughout the year would do the flying and non-flying public so much good. Educating people by taking the mystery out of flying would also help expand the industry and help more people fall in love with flying.

  28. I've noticed recently that a number of turboprops, especially smaller, single-engine turboprops (TBMs, Pilatus PC-12, etc.) actually work in reverse, where the air intake directs air to the rear of the turbine and the exhaust is ducted out the sides, immediately behind the prop. I don't really understand why they do this, but I think that it may have to do with the reduction gear requirements.

  29. Oh, I was hoping for an answer to the question in the video :(.
    I guess the safety is likely to be to do with how likely these engines are to break up and how violent it is when they do. The failure of the engine isn't such a big deal in itself as long as there is another engine.

    Let's say that the blade or fan break though because for example a drone flies into it. A fan has the housing of the engine to stop or attenuate the shrapnel. The prop does not.

    A prop is made of thick material. A fan is made of thin material, but with many small blades spaced closely together such that an object hitting them might have the force more evenly distributed. Also the fan has a ring around the outside of the structure that binds all fo the baldes together.

    I think the real answer will come out of statistics or detailed computer models though.

  30. Cool video but to be honest I'm more nervous about jet engines than prop driven ones but it does make me feel better after hearing your explanation..Thanks:)

  31. i have a question: at about 2:20 you showed a picture of a turbo prop engine. at the back of these engine it is shown, that the exhaust stream is directed downwards instead of backwards. why would you not use this energy in oder to propell the aircraft even further or al last more efficient by using the thrust the engine generates in the combustion chamber…. i hope you understand the question…. german chap…sry…

  32. Whats wrong with Airbus A220-300 (bombardier CS300) turbo fan engines??? They are new, super quite and efficent, BUT
    my favorite AirBaltic, has replaced each engine twice on average in the first two years of the aircraft’s operation.
    Something is terribly wrong and they are not telling us, or its just corruption or something nothing to do with the specs of engine?

  33. Single front fan engine we see in movies of small plane.. how it works plz tell with more clear animation .. 3d animation mait plz

  34. I've heard turbo props are better on unimproved airstrips because they are less likely to get rocks and dirt and crap sucked into the engine and causing a malfunction

  35. Both engines are engineered around sound physics principles. The safest will be the engine that received proper maintenance.

  36. Imagine if you have 2 turbine profiles you can go very very fast but be loud Pratt and Whitney should take that in consideration

  37. Are you doing these videos yourself or are you working for some one? And are you getting paid for these I hope so!!

  38. The instantly available engine without “warm up” of turbine engines is a great asset. The turbo prop seems it would have advantages in slowing down “beta” and response to power than a turbofan but obviously louder. Makes sense why the prop is a STOL tool for commercial aircraft and the turbofan is a economy tool. Great explanation!

  39. The title is clearly a click-bait.

    I know I am months late, but as a guy who studies how those engines are built, this is generally the simplest explaination:
    The turbo-fan/turbofan (depending on how you want to write it) is a bit safer because the blades are incased. What does that mean? Well, let's construct a mental scenario to the extreme:
    Let's assume the blades of a propeller and a turbo-fan are worn out and weakend and something strikes them breaking bits of it. In the case of a turbo-fan, the worst case scenario is ingestion of metal particles into the system and the destruction of the outer shell. However, most turbofans are quite solid, meaning the damage would usually be contained to the engine itself. And even if the engine is blown out, there is a low risk of losing the plane as a plane can be flown with one engine.
    However, let's assume the blade of the propeller breaks. Well, you have metal pieces flying at almost supersonic speeds out towards the cabin or control surfaces. Yup. Pretty bad. Even if we do not assume breaking the integrity of the blades or engine itself, we have the problem of FOD or other things being absorbed into the airflow and deviated by the blades. Again, with a turbo-fan, they are blown into the outer-flow and behind.

    With a turbo-prop, again, objects being deviated at supersonic speeds out towards the cabin.

    Of course, this is only looking at safety parameters in engines. Frankly speaking, most problems in modern engines come due to maintainance, (more generally, the lack of it). Considering this, the type of engine has nothing to do with safety unless we go into extreme cases mentioned above.
    The difference in turbo-fans and turbo-props usually comes in the ballance between fuel consumption, thrust developed and noise pollution. A turbo-fan consumes several times more fuel than a turboprop, so its still highly inefficient in most of the cases. However, they allow for faster speeds and altitudes, while also being among the most silent out of the propulsion systems we use today, meaning the overall cost is a bit cheaper and resistance from population is much lower

  40. I would say no to that because here in Australia a airline called rex had a prop fall off in flight I stick to the tubro fan engine thanks

  41. Since I learnt what Piston-Props where, as well as Turbojets, Turbofans, and Turboprops where I can kinda make out the sound of the aircraft above me
    If it sounds like BRRRRRRRR and no whine = Piston Prop
    it theres a BRRRRR and a whine = Turboprop
    If theres a Loud Whine/Torch like noise = Turbofan
    If theres just loud torch/constant "explosion" noise = The Canadian Air Force is flying their CF-18's over my apartment in Oshawa again… and those are Turbojets.

  42. I honestly don't mind flying on any well equipped aircraft, the more variety the better! I love experiencing new things, especially engineering marvels. I'd love to experience and compare the different engine-driven aircrafts.

  43. Nice explanations…. dumbed-down just enough, I think. On an unrelated topic…. you got the perfect face for radio. Cheers

  44. The reason I don't like turbo props is because i) they usually fly at lower altitudes, inside 'the weather' ii) usually associated with smaller planes – again, more susceptible to being buffeted by the weather iii) slower than turbofans – longer journey time, iv) they tend to crash more (at least here in Taiwan) – this is not inherently the fault of the Turboprop (ATRs) – rather I suspect – their relative ease of operation, which allows dodgy airlines to get away with using cowboy pilots until .. the unthinkable happens – which it has – twice in the past 2 years.

  45. The Jetstream was my first turboprop, too! And talking about birdstrike, I managed to get a bird into the air condition intake. That's a really tiny hole!

  46. Turbofans are getting bigger in diameter and some of them are geared (eg P&W 1000G), while turboprops are getting more blades and starting to look more like fans… the two seem to be converging.

  47. I just kind of don’t like flying on turboprop engines because my personal preference does not favor that noise. I like engines that sound powerful

  48. Either is fine with me…but I gotta tell ya…I love the sound of a turboprop, especially when compared to the sound of a piston prop engine. Turboprops sound like "all muscle", smooth and more reliable. However, the diagram you show of a turboprop shows that it is not a direct drive from the shaft which surprised me.

  49. Great channel,
    Your question: I’ve always felt a turboprop engine more reliable than it’s forerunner.
    Your jet engine explanation particularly with your illustrations was excellent.
    Question: Is the high bypass turbofan engine more efficient than a turboprop?
    Comment: I love the sound smoke and fire of the large cyclone radial engines, the only thing better is 3-more engines.

  50. I can't help to just feel that any aircraft needs a piston engine and a prop – just look at the "Wasp Major" engine and you may understand why: that thing LIVES, screams, smokes and does a lot of effort to turn that big, big prop very fast…that's the other extreme from the engine and prop the aircraft I'm going to fly has (a Diamond DA-20 Katana). But both works to the same principles!

  51. I knew a mechanic that told me that in turbo prop not to sit in the row the blades are inline with if the engine throws a blade then there's a potential that I can go into the fuselage and well you know the rest he told me it's common they have to tighten the bolts I don't know if that's more to do with the type of plain or engine but he maintains the flybee that mainly operates turbo props

  52. I used to do a lot of flying on Piper navajos and Cessna Grand Caravans I would much rather fly on a Grand Caravan even though the Navajo was faster

  53. Having watched your video I now feel safer about flying on a turbo prop plane. Are there single engine turbo prop planes or are all single engine planes piston engine planes?

  54. I wouldn't trust a turbojet, turbofan, turboprop, or piston engine which has "explosions" in it combustion chamber. Controlled, rapid combustion (burning) seems safer. The only exception I know of would be something with a pulsejet engine

  55. I know turboprop propellers are able to change their pitch, but why does their pitch / angle of attack look almost 90 degrees to its sweep? ie, they look like they will push the air sideways like a centrifuge rather than pushing the air backwards.

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